The Problem of an Aging Global Population, Shown by Country
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Demographics

The Problem of an Aging Global Population, Shown by Country

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The Problem of an Aging Global Population, Shown by Country

The Implications of an Aging Population

The world is experiencing a seismic demographic shift—and no country is immune to the consequences.

While increasing life expectancy and declining birth rates are considered major achievements in modern science and healthcare, they will have a significant impact on future generations.

Today’s graphic relies on OECD data to demonstrate how the old-age to working-age ratio will change by 2060, highlighting some of the world’s fastest aging countries.

The Demographic Debacle

By 2050, there will be 10 billion people on earth, compared to 7.7 billion today—and many of them will be living longer. As a result, the number of elderly people per 100 working-age people will nearly triple—from 20 in 1980, to 58 in 2060.

Populations are getting older in all OECD countries, yet there are clear differences in the pace of aging. For instance, Japan holds the title for having the oldest population, with ⅓ of its citizens already over the age of 65. By 2030, the country’s workforce is expected to fall by 8 million—leading to a major potential labor shortage.

In another example, while South Korea currently boasts a younger than average population, it will age rapidly and end up with the highest old-to-young ratio among developed countries.

A Declining Workforce

Globally, the working-age population will see a 10% decrease by 2060. It will fall the most drastically by 35% or more in Greece, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. On the other end of the scale, it will increase by more than 20% in Australia, Mexico, and Israel.

aging population chart

Israel’s notably higher increase of 67% is due to the country’s high fertility rate, which is comparable to “baby boom” numbers seen in the U.S. following the second World War.

As countries prepare for the coming decades, workforce shortages are just one of the impacts of aging populations already being felt.

Managing the Risks

There are many other social and economic risks that we can come to expect as the global population continues to age:

  • The Squeezed Middle: With more people claiming pension benefits but less people paying income taxes, the shrinking workforce may be forced to pay higher taxes.
  • Rising Healthcare Costs: Longer lives do not necessarily mean healthier lives, with those over 65 more likely to have at least one chronic disease and require expensive, long-term care.
  • Economic Slowdown: Changing workforces may lead capital to flow away from rapidly aging countries to younger countries, shifting the global distribution of economic power.

The strain on pension systems is perhaps the most evident sign of a drastically aging population. Although the average retirement age is gradually increasing in many countries, people are saving insufficiently for their increased life span—resulting in an estimated $400 trillion deficit by 2050.

Pensions Under Pressure

A pension is promised, but not necessarily guaranteed. Any changes made to existing government programs can alter the lives of future retirees entirely—but effective pension reforms that lessen the growing deficit are required urgently.

Towards a Better System

Certain countries are making great strides towards more sustainable pension systems, and the Global Pension Index suggests initiatives that governments can take into consideration, such as:

  1. Continuing to increase the age of retirement
  2. Increasing the level of savings—both inside and outside pension funds
  3. Increasing the coverage of private pensions across the labor force, including self-employed and contract employees, to provide improved integration between various pillars
  4. Preserving retirement funds by limiting the access to benefits before the retirement age
  5. Increasing the trust and confidence of all stakeholders by improving transparency of pension plans

Although 59% of employees are expecting to continue earning well into their retirement years, providing people with better incentives and options to make working at an older age easier could be crucial for ensuring continued economic growth.

Live Long and Prosper

As 2020 marks the beginning of the Decade of Healthy Ageing, the world is undoubtedly entering a pivotal period.

Countries all over the world face tremendous pressure to effectively manage their aging populations, but preparing for this demographic shift early will contribute to the economic advancement of countries, and allow populations—both young and old—to live long and prosper.

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Demographics

Where Will the World’s Next 1,000 Babies Be Born?

This graphic paints a picture of the world’s population, showing which countries are most likely to welcome the next 1,000 babies.

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Where Will the World’s Next 1,000 Babies Be Born?

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Every four minutes, approximately 1,000 babies are born across the globe. But in which countries are these babies the most statistically likely to come from?

Using data from the CIA World Factbook, this graphic by Pratap Vardhan (Stats of India) paints a picture of the world’s demographics, showing which countries are most likely to welcome the next 1,000 babies based on population and birth rates as of 2022 estimates.

The Next 1,000 Babies, By Country

Considering India has a population of nearly 1.4 billion, it’s fairly unsurprising that it ranks first on the list. Of every 1,000 babies born, the South Asian country accounts for roughly 172 of them.

PlaceRegionBirths Per 1,000 Global Babies
🇮🇳​ IndiaAsia171.62
🇨🇳 ChinaAsia102.84
🇳🇬 NigeriaAfrica56.50
🇵🇰 PakistanAsia47.23
🇨🇩 Congo, Democratic Republic of theAfrica31.90
🇮🇩 IndonesiaAsia31.20
🇺🇸 United StatesAmericas30.42
🇪🇹 EthiopiaAfrica25.44
🇧🇷 BrazilAmericas22.27
🇧🇩 BangladeshAsia21.52
🇵🇭 PhilippinesAsia18.75
🇪🇬 EgyptAfrica16.98
🇹🇿 TanzaniaAfrica15.61
🇺🇬 UgandaAfrica13.89
🇲🇽 MexicoAmericas12.85
🇻🇳 VietnamAsia11.96
🇸🇩 SudanAfrica11.79
🇰🇪 KenyaAfrica10.82
🇦🇴 AngolaAfrica10.68
🇦🇫 AfghanistanAsia9.98
🇷🇺 RussiaEurope9.85
🇮🇷 IranAsia9.73
🇲🇿 MozambiqueAfrica8.72
🇹🇷 TurkeyAsia8.71
🇳🇪 NigerAfrica8.46
🇿🇦 South AfricaAfrica7.84
🇨🇲 CameroonAfrica7.65
🇮🇶 IraqAsia7.34
🇬🇭 GhanaAfrica6.94
🇲🇲 MyanmarAsia6.90
🇯🇵 JapanAsia6.34
🇲🇱 MaliAfrica6.25
🇩🇿 AlgeriaAfrica6.01
🇨🇮 Cote d'IvoireAfrica5.97
🇲🇬 MadagascarAfrica5.93
🇫🇷 FranceEurope5.85
🇩🇪 GermanyEurope5.62
🇾🇪 YemenAsia5.61
🇨🇴 ColombiaAmericas5.48
🇧🇫 Burkina FasoAfrica5.41
🇬🇧 United KingdomEurope5.37
🇹🇩 ChadAfrica5.34
🇦🇷 ArgentinaAmericas5.29
🇹🇭 ThailandAsia5.19
🇿🇲 ZambiaAfrica5.03
🇲🇦 MoroccoAfrica4.70
🇲🇼 MalawiAfrica4.27
🇧🇯 BeninAfrica4.16
🇸🇳 SenegalAfrica4.15
🇵🇪 PeruAmericas4.08
🇳🇵 NepalAsia3.95
🇻🇪 VenezuelaAmericas3.78
🇸🇦 Saudi ArabiaAsia3.69
🇿🇼 ZimbabweAfrica3.67
🇲🇾 MalaysiaAsia3.62
🇸🇾 SyriaAsia3.60
🇺🇿 UzbekistanAsia3.55
🇬🇳 GuineaAfrica3.47
🇸🇴 SomaliaAfrica3.45
🇧🇮 BurundiAfrica3.28
🇸🇸 South SudanAfrica3.19
🇮🇹 ItalyEurope3.12
🇬🇹 GuatemalaAmericas2.90
🇺🇦 UkraineEurope2.88
🇨🇦 CanadaAmericas2.85
🇰🇵 Korea, NorthAsia2.71
🇰🇷 Korea, SouthAsia2.63
🇷🇼 RwandaAfrica2.56
🇪🇸 SpainEurope2.47
🇵🇱 PolandEurope2.38
🇰🇭 CambodiaAsia2.37
🇦🇺 AustraliaOceania2.36
🇱🇰 Sri LankaAsia2.35
🇰🇿 KazakhstanAsia2.19
🇪🇨 EcuadorAmericas2.09
🇸🇱 Sierra LeoneAfrica2.06
🇵🇬 Papua New GuineaOceania2.04
🇹🇬 TogoAfrica1.99
🇯🇴 JordanAsia1.82
🇭🇹 HaitiAmericas1.76
🇨🇱 ChileAmericas1.73
🇧🇴 BoliviaAmericas1.65
🇱🇷 LiberiaAfrica1.44
🇩🇴 Dominican RepublicAmericas1.42
🇳🇱 NetherlandsEurope1.40
🇹🇯 TajikistanAsia1.39
🇨🇫 Central African RepublicAfrica1.31
🇨🇬 Congo, Republic of theAfrica1.30
🇹🇼 TaiwanAsia1.28
🇹🇳 TunisiaAfrica1.28
🇭🇳 HondurasAmericas1.24
🇪🇷 EritreaAfrica1.23
🇷🇴 RomaniaEurope1.19
🇱🇦 LaosAsia1.19
🇮🇱 IsraelAsia1.14
🇱🇾 LibyaAfrica1.13
🇦🇿 AzerbaijanAsia1.03
🇧🇪 BelgiumEurope0.95
🇵🇾 ParaguayAmericas0.88
🇰🇬 KyrgyzstanAsia0.87
🇸🇻 El SalvadorAmericas0.86
🇲🇷 MauritaniaAfrica0.86
🇸🇪 SwedenEurope0.83
🇨🇺 CubaAmericas0.82
🇦🇪 United Arab EmiratesAsia0.79
🇳🇮 NicaraguaAmericas0.76
🇹🇲 TurkmenistanAsia0.72
🇨🇿 CzechiaEurope0.68
🇨🇭 SwitzerlandEurope0.65
🇧🇾 BelarusEurope0.63
🇦🇹 AustriaEurope0.62
🇭🇺 HungaryEurope0.62
🇴🇲 OmanAsia0.61
🇵🇹 PortugalEurope0.60
🇬🇷 GreeceEurope0.59
🇵🇦 PanamaAmericas0.57
🇨🇷 Costa RicaAmericas0.55
🇬🇼 Guinea-BissauAfrica0.54
🇵🇸 West BankAsia0.54
🇬🇲 GambiaAfrica0.51
🇱🇧 LebanonAsia0.51
🇳🇦 NamibiaAfrica0.50
🇳🇴 NorwayEurope0.49
🇩🇰 DenmarkEurope0.49
🇮🇪 IrelandEurope0.48
🇳🇿 New ZealandOceania0.47
🇬🇦 GabonAfrica0.45
🇷🇸 SerbiaEurope0.44
🇭🇰 Hong KongAsia0.43
🇫🇮 FinlandEurope0.43
🇧🇬 BulgariaEurope0.41
🇵🇸 Gaza StripAsia0.41
🇰🇼 KuwaitAsia0.40
🇬🇪 GeorgiaAsia0.40
🇸🇬 SingaporeAsia0.39
🇲🇳 MongoliaAsia0.38
🇱🇸 LesothoAfrica0.37
🇬🇶 Equatorial GuineaAfrica0.37
🇸🇰 SlovakiaEurope0.36
🇧🇼 BotswanaAfrica0.36
🇯🇲 JamaicaAmericas0.33
🇹🇱 Timor-LesteAsia0.33
🇺🇾 UruguayAmericas0.32
🇦🇱 AlbaniaEurope0.29
🇭🇷 CroatiaEurope0.27
🇲🇩 MoldovaEurope0.25
🇦🇲 ArmeniaAsia0.24
🇧🇦 Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope0.24
🇽🇰 KosovoEurope0.21
🇸🇿 EswatiniAfrica0.19
🇱🇹 LithuaniaEurope0.18
🇵🇷 Puerto RicoAmericas0.18
🇶🇦 QatarAsia0.17
🇲🇰 North MacedoniaEurope0.16
🇩🇯 DjiboutiAfrica0.16
🇰🇲 ComorosAfrica0.14
🇧🇭 BahrainAsia0.14
🇸🇮 SloveniaEurope0.13
🇱🇻 LatviaEurope0.12
🇸🇧 Solomon IslandsOceania0.12
🇫🇯 FijiOceania0.11
🇹🇹 Trinidad and TobagoAmericas0.11
🇧🇹 BhutanAsia0.10
🇨🇾 CyprusAsia0.10
🇬🇾 GuyanaAmericas0.10
🇲🇺 MauritiusAfrica0.09
🇨🇻 Cabo VerdeAfrica0.08
🇪🇪 EstoniaEurope0.08
🇸🇷 SurinameAmericas0.07
🇧🇿 BelizeAmericas0.06
🇧🇳 BruneiAsia0.06
🇱🇺 LuxembourgEurope0.06
🇲🇪 MontenegroEurope0.05
🇻🇺 VanuatuOceania0.05
🇸🇹 Sao Tome and PrincipeAfrica0.04
🇲🇻 MaldivesAsia0.04
🇲🇴 MacauAsia0.04
🇧🇸 Bahamas, TheAmericas0.04
🇮🇸 IcelandEurope0.03
🇲🇹 MaltaEurope0.03
🇳🇨 New CaledoniaOceania0.03
🇵🇫 French PolynesiaOceania0.03
🇼🇸 SamoaOceania0.03
🇧🇧 BarbadosAmericas0.02
🇬🇺 GuamOceania0.02
🇰🇮 KiribatiOceania0.02
🇹🇴 TongaOceania0.02
🇨🇼 CuracaoAmericas0.01
🇱🇨 Saint LuciaAmericas0.01
🇫🇲 Micronesia, Federated States ofOceania0.01
🇲🇭 Marshall IslandsOceania0.01
🇬🇩 GrenadaAmericas0.01
🇦🇬 Antigua and BarbudaAmericas0.01
🇦🇼 ArubaAmericas0.01
🇯🇪 JerseyEurope0.01
🇻🇨 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAmericas0.01
🇻🇮 Virgin IslandsAmericas0.01
🇸🇨 SeychellesAfrica0.01
🇩🇲 DominicaAmericas0.01
🇮🇲 Isle of ManEurope0.01
🇧🇲 BermudaAmericas0.01
🇲🇵 Northern Mariana IslandsOceania0.01
🇬🇱 GreenlandAmericas0.01
🇹🇨 Turks and Caicos IslandsAmericas0.01
🇫🇴 Faroe IslandsEurope0.01
🇦🇸 American SamoaOceania0.01
🇰🇾 Cayman IslandsAmericas0.01
🇰🇳 Saint Kitts and NevisAmericas0.00
🇬🇬 GuernseyEurope0.00
🇦🇩 AndorraEurope0.00
🇸🇽 Sint MaartenAmericas0.00
🇲🇫 Saint MartinAmericas0.00
🇻🇬 British Virgin IslandsAmericas0.00
🇬🇮 GibraltarEurope0.00
🇱🇮 LiechtensteinEurope0.00
🇸🇲 San MarinoEurope0.00
🇹🇻 TuvaluOceania0.00
🇵🇼 PalauOceania0.00
🇦🇮 AnguillaAmericas0.00
🇲🇨 MonacoEurope0.00
🇳🇷 NauruOceania0.00
🇼🇫 Wallis and FutunaOceania0.00
🇨🇰 Cook IslandsOceania0.00
🇸🇭 Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da CunhaAfrica0.00
🇧🇱 Saint BarthelemyAmericas0.00
🇲🇸 MontserratAmericas0.00
🇫🇰 Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)Americas0.00
🇵🇲 Saint Pierre and MiquelonAmericas0.00

It’s worth noting that, while India ranks number one on the list, the country’s birth rate (which is its total number of births in a year per 1,000 individuals) is actually slightly below the global average, at 16.8 compared to 17.7 respectively.

China, which comes second on the list, is similar to India, with a high population but relatively low birth rate as well. On the other hand, Nigeria, which ranks third on the list, has a birth rate that’s nearly double the global average, at 34.2.

Why is Nigeria’s birth rate so high?

There are various intermingling factors at play, but one key reason is the fact that Nigeria’s economy still is developing, and ranks 131st globally in terms of GDP per capita. Further, access to education for women is still not as widespread as it could be, and research shows that this is strongly correlated with higher birth rates.

The World’s Population Growth Rate is Declining

While there are hundreds of thousands of babies born around the world each day, it’s worth mentioning that the world’s overall population growth rate has actually been declining since the 1960s.

This is happening for a number of reasons, including:

  • Increased wealth around the world, which research has correlated with fewer births
  • Various government policies discouraging large families
  • The global shift from rural to urban living

By 2100, global population growth is expected to drop to 0.1%, which means we’ll essentially reach net-zero population growth.

This would increase our global median age even further, which poses a number of economic risks if countries don’t properly prepare for this demographic shift.

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Demographics

Ranked: The Most and Least Livable Cities in 2022

Which cities rank as the best places to live worldwide? This map reveals the world’s most and least livable cities.

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livable cities

Ranked: The Most and Least Livable Cities in 2022

Pandemic restrictions changed the livability of many urban centers worldwide as cultural sites were shuttered, restaurant dining was restricted, and local economies faced the consequences. But as cities worldwide return to the status quo, many of these urban centers have become desirable places to live yet again.

This map uses annual rankings from the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) to show the world’s most livable cities, measuring different categories including: stability, healthcare, culture and environment, education, and infrastructure.

A Quick Note on Methodology

The ranking attempts to assess which cities across the globe provide the best living conditions, by assigning a score on 30 quantitative and qualitative measures across the five categories with the following weightings:

  1. Healthcare (20%)
  2. Culture & Environment (25%)
  3. Stability (25%)
  4. Education (10%)
  5. Infrastructure (20%)

Of the 30 factors within these categories, the qualitative ones are assigned as acceptable, tolerable, uncomfortable, undesirable, or intolerable by a team of expert analysts. Quantitative measures are given a score based on a number of external data points. Everything is then weighted to provide a score between 1-100, with 100 being the ideal.

Ranked: The 10 Most Livable Cities

Of the 172 cities included in the rankings, many of the most livable cities can be found in Europe. However, three of the top 10 are located in Canada: Vancouver, Calgary, and Toronto.

Vienna has been ranked number one many times, most recently in 2019. According to the EIU, the Austrian capital only fell out of the top slot during the pandemic years because its famous museums and restaurants were shuttered.

RankCityCountryScore
#1Vienna🇦🇹 Austria99.1
#2Copenhagen🇩🇰 Denmark98.0
#3Zurich🇨🇭 Switzerland96.3
#3Calgary🇨🇦 Canada96.3
#5Vancouver🇨🇦 Canada96.1
#6Geneva🇨🇭 Switzerland95.9
#7Frankfurt🇩🇪 Germany95.7
#8Toronto🇨🇦 Canada95.4
#9Amsterdam🇳🇱 Netherlands95.3
#10Osaka🇯🇵 Japan95.1
#10Melbourne🇦🇺 Australia95.1

Only one Asian city, Osaka, makes the top 10 list, tying with Melbourne for 10th place. Notably, not a single U.S. city is found in the top ranks.

Editor’s note: Two cities tie for both the #3 and #10 ranks, meaning that the “top 10” list actually includes 12 cities.

Ranked: The 10 Least Livable Cities

Some of the least livable cities in the world are located across Africa and Central Asia.

RankCityCountryScore
#163Tehran🇮🇷 Iran44.0
#164Douala🇨🇲 Cameroon43.3
#165Harare🇿🇼 Zimbabwe40.9
#166Dhaka🇧🇩 Bangladesh39.2
#167Port Moresby🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea 38.8
#168Karachi🇵🇰 Pakistan37.5
#169Algiers🇩🇿 Algeria37.0
#170Tripoli🇱🇾 Libya34.2
#171Lagos🇳🇬 Nigeria32.2
#172Damascus🇸🇾 Syria30.7

Many of the least livable cities are within conflict zones, contributing to the low ratings. However, these regions are also home to some of the world’s fastest growing cities, presenting many opportunities for ambitious residents.

The Biggest Changes in Ranking

Let’s take a look at the cities that moved up the global rankings most dramatically compared to last year’s data.

Moving Up: The 10 Most Improved Cities

CityCountryOverall RankRank Change
Frankfurt🇩🇪 Germany#7+32
Hamburg🇩🇪 Germany#16+31
Dusseldorf🇩🇪 Germany#22+28
London🇬🇧 UK#33+27
Manchester🇬🇧 UK#28+26
Paris🇫🇷 France#19+23
Brussels🇧🇪 Belgium#24+22
Amsterdam🇳🇱 Netherlands#9+21
Athens🇬🇷 Greece#73+19
Los Angeles🇺🇸 US#37+18

Here’s a look at the cities that fell the most in the rankings since last year’s report.

Moving Down: The 10 Cities That Tumbled

CityCountryOverall RankRank Change
Wellington🇳🇿 New Zealand#50-46
Auckland🇳🇿 New Zealand#34-33
Adelaide🇦🇺 Australia#30-27
Perth🇦🇺 Australia#32-26
Houston🇺🇸 US#56-25
Reykjavik🇮🇸 Iceland#48-25
Madrid🇪🇸 Spain#43-24
Taipei🇹🇼 Taiwan#53-20
Barcelona🇪🇸 Spain#35-19
Brisbane🇦🇺 Australia#27-17

According to the report, a number of cities in New Zealand and Australia temporarily dropped in the ranking due to COVID-19 restrictions.

It’s also worth noting that some Eastern European cities moved down in the rankings because of their close proximity to the war in Ukraine. Finally, Kyiv was not included in this year’s report because of the conflict.

Urbanization and Livability

As of 2021, around 57% of the world’s population lives in urban centers and projections show that people worldwide will continue to move into cities.

While there are more amenities in urban areas, the pandemic revealed many issues with urbanization and the concentration of large populations. The stress on healthcare systems is felt most intensely in cities and restrictions on public outings are some of the first measures to be introduced in the face of a global health crisis.

Now with the cost of living rising, cities may face pressures on their quality of life, and governments may be forced to cut spending on public services. Regardless, people worldwide continue to see the benefits of city living—it’s projected that over two-thirds of the global population will live in cities by 2050.

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