Comparing the Cost of Living Around the World
Connect with us

Misc

Comparing the Cost of Living Around the World

Published

on

Open the large interactive version here

This graphic compares the cost of living and purchasing power of 578 cities worldwide, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

Open the large interactive version here

This graphic compares the cost of living and purchasing power of 578 cities worldwide, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

Comparing The Cost of Living Around the World

The amount of money that’s needed to pay for day-to-day expenses like housing and food varies greatly from city to city. And some cities, like New York City, are known as especially expensive places to live.

So how do everyday expenses in New York City truly compare in costs to places like Beirut, Lebanon, or Bangalore, India?

This graphic by Victor Dépré (hypntic.data) uses 2022 data from Numbeo to compare the cost of living and purchasing power in 578 different cities around the world, using New York City as a benchmark for comparison.

The Cost of Living Index

Though New York City is widely recognized as one of the most expensive cities in the world, according to Numbeo—the world’s largest database of user-contributed data on cities and countries—there are a number of cities that are actually more expensive than the Big Apple.

Here’s a look at the comparative cost of living in 578 cities. For context, if a city has a cost of living index of 121, that means day-to-day expenses in it are 21% higher than New York’s, on average:

CityCountryCost of Living Index
HamiltonBermuda149.0
ZurichSwitzerland131.2
BaselSwitzerland130.9
ZugSwitzerland128.1
LuganoSwitzerland124.0
LausanneSwitzerland122.0
BeirutLebanon120.5
BernSwitzerland118.2
GenevaSwitzerland114.1
StavangerNorway104.6
Honolulu, HIUnited States103.7
OsloNorway102.3
BergenNorway100.4
New York, NYUnited States100.0
TrondheimNorway99.4
TromsoNorway99.0
ReykjavikIceland97.6
Saint HelierJersey96.5
Santa Barbara, CAUnited States95.0
Tel Aviv-YafoIsrael94.5
Berkeley, CAUnited States94.4
San Francisco, CAUnited States93.9
Oakland, CAUnited States92.9
Anchorage, AKUnited States91.2
Santa Clara, CAUnited States89.4
Petah TikvaIsrael88.9
BeershebaIsrael88.8
Seattle, WAUnited States88.5
CopenhagenDenmark88.3
ArhusDenmark88.2
HaifaIsrael87.4
JerusalemIsrael86.3
NassauBahamas86.0
LondonUnited Kingdom85.6
TokyoJapan85.6
Boston, MAUnited States85.5
NiceFrance84.6
ParisFrance84.4
Queens, NYUnited States84.0
SingaporeSingapore84.0
Washington, DCUnited States83.7
SydneyAustralia83.2
LuxembourgLuxembourg83.0
EspooFinland82.5
AalborgDenmark82.4
Pittsburgh, PAUnited States82.4
DarwinAustralia82.1
AmsterdamNetherlands80.8
Jersey City, NJUnited States80.8
Hong KongHong Kong80.7
BredaNetherlands80.6
Nanaimo, BCCanada80.3
AucklandNew Zealand80.2
HaarlemNetherlands79.8
UtrechtNetherlands79.8
BrightonUnited Kingdom79.6
BrisbaneAustralia79.4
Philadelphia, PAUnited States79.2
Los Angeles, CAUnited States79.2
Minneapolis, MNUnited States79.1
TurkuFinland79.1
DublinIreland79.1
StockholmSweden78.9
Birmingham, ALUnited States78.8
SeoulSouth Korea78.7
EindhovenNetherlands78.2
OdenseDenmark78.2
Miami, FLUnited States78.0
GroningenNetherlands77.9
Sacramento, CAUnited States77.9
NijmegenNetherlands77.8
MunichGermany77.5
GalwayIreland77.4
St. John's, Newfoundland and LabradorCanada77.4
InnsbruckAustria77.3
PerthAustralia77.3
Charleston, SCUnited States77.3
Asheville, NCUnited States77.3
LyonFrance77.2
LeidenNetherlands77.2
HelsinkiFinland77.2
Chicago, ILUnited States77.1
Fort Lauderdale, FLUnited States76.9
Portland, ORUnited States76.8
MelbourneAustralia76.8
OsakaJapan76.7
WellingtonNew Zealand76.7
VictoriaCanada76.7
VancouverCanada76.6
Atlanta, GAUnited States76.6
AdelaideAustralia76.6
LundSweden76.6
ToulouseFrance76.6
GuelphCanada76.4
RotterdamNetherlands76.2
Saint Paul, MNUnited States76.2
CorkIreland76.2
GuildfordUnited Kingdom76.0
Plano, TXUnited States75.9
CanberraAustralia75.9
Tampa, FLUnited States75.8
Gold CoastAustralia75.8
OxfordUnited Kingdom75.7
NagoyaJapan75.6
LincolnUnited Kingdom75.6
YorkUnited Kingdom75.5
San Diego, CAUnited States75.5
Cleveland, OHUnited States75.4
Omaha, NEUnited States75.3
LeuvenBelgium75.3
ReadingUnited Kingdom75.3
HamiltonNew Zealand75.2
Denver, COUnited States75.2
UppsalaSweden75.1
NewcastleAustralia75.0
HalifaxCanada74.9
MilanItaly74.8
SliemaMalta74.8
GrazAustria74.6
BrusselsBelgium74.4
Buffalo, NYUnited States74.3
TorontoCanada74.3
Colorado Springs, COUnited States74.3
Fremont, CAUnited States74.1
LimerickIreland74.1
Salem, ORUnited States74.0
The Hague (Den Haag)Netherlands73.9
HobartAustralia73.9
ChristchurchNew Zealand73.9
MalmoSweden73.8
San Jose, CAUnited States73.7
Nashville, TNUnited States73.6
EnschedeNetherlands73.6
Olympia, WAUnited States73.6
MaastrichtNetherlands73.6
Baltimore, MDUnited States73.6
New Orleans, LAUnited States73.6
LinzAustria73.6
CalgaryCanada73.4
EdinburghUnited Kingdom73.2
OttawaCanada73.2
Milton KeynesUnited Kingdom73.1
ManchesterUnited Kingdom73.1
MississaugaCanada73.1
CambridgeUnited Kingdom73.1
GothenburgSweden73.0
EdmontonCanada72.9
ParmaItaly72.8
GenoaItaly72.8
FrankfurtGermany72.8
Fort Collins, COUnited States72.8
GrenobleFrance72.7
BergamoItaly72.6
DerbyUnited Kingdom72.6
Iowa City, IAUnited States72.5
DelftNetherlands72.5
Syracuse, NYUnited States72.5
Everett, WAUnited States72.4
SaskatoonCanada72.3
HeidelbergGermany72.1
MarkhamCanada72.1
HamburgGermany72.0
Red DeerCanada71.7
SurreyCanada71.7
TriesteItaly71.7
Rochester, NYUnited States71.6
Milwaukee, WIUnited States71.6
Albany, NYUnited States71.5
LiverpoolUnited Kingdom71.4
NottinghamUnited Kingdom71.3
AntwerpBelgium71.3
BristolUnited Kingdom71.3
TampereFinland71.2
PortsmouthUnited Kingdom71.2
BonnGermany71.1
MarseilleFrance71.1
RomeItaly71.0
TaurangaNew Zealand70.9
FlorenceItaly70.8
PlymouthUnited Kingdom70.7
Detroit, MIUnited States70.7
Reno, NVUnited States70.7
OuluFinland70.6
MontrealCanada70.6
SalzburgAustria70.5
LondonCanada70.5
BramptonCanada70.4
Fort Worth, TXUnited States70.4
Durham, NCUnited States70.4
WinnipegCanada70.3
Ann Arbor, MIUnited States70.3
Greensboro, NCUnited States70.3
San JuanPuerto Rico70.1
Charlotte, NCUnited States70.1
NorwichUnited Kingdom70.1
GentBelgium70.0
ExeterUnited Kingdom69.9
DortmundGermany69.9
Long Beach, CAUnited States69.9
BolognaItaly69.8
North VancouverCanada69.8
KelownaCanada69.7
Columbus, OHUnited States69.7
BresciaItaly69.6
Eugene, ORUnited States69.6
MacaoMacao69.6
CologneGermany69.6
Jacksonville, FLUnited States69.5
ReginaCanada69.4
Phoenix, AZUnited States69.4
Des Moines, IAUnited States69.3
Quebec CityCanada69.0
Fresno, CAUnited States69.0
BerlinGermany68.9
CardiffUnited Kingdom68.9
WindsorCanada68.9
GlasgowUnited Kingdom68.8
KitchenerCanada68.7
Vancouver, WAUnited States68.6
KingstonCanada68.6
AugsburgGermany68.5
StuttgartGermany68.4
ViennaAustria68.4
MannheimGermany68.4
Las Vegas, NVUnited States68.3
Boise, IDUnited States68.3
DusseldorfGermany68.3
Raleigh, NCUnited States68.2
PisaItaly68.2
Spokane, WAUnited States68.1
Orlando, FLUnited States68.1
Dayton, OHUnited States68.0
VeronaItaly68.0
Dallas, TXUnited States67.9
Richmond, VAUnited States67.8
Louisville, KYUnited States67.7
SouthamptonUnited Kingdom67.6
LeedsUnited Kingdom67.6
TrevisoItaly67.5
Madison, WIUnited States67.3
BirminghamUnited Kingdom67.3
Indianapolis, INUnited States67.1
HanoverGermany67.0
NurembergGermany67.0
HamiltonCanada67.0
CoventryUnited Kingdom66.9
Newcastle upon TyneUnited Kingdom66.9
Saint Louis, MOUnited States66.8
UlmGermany66.7
Stoke-on-TrentUnited Kingdom66.6
Austin, TXUnited States66.5
DundeeUnited Kingdom66.5
SaarbruckenGermany66.3
Kansas City, MOUnited States66.1
CagliariItaly66.1
KarlsruheGermany65.9
SheffieldUnited Kingdom65.9
TaipeiTaiwan65.8
BelfastUnited Kingdom65.7
Chattanooga, TNUnited States65.7
DarmstadtGermany65.5
LimassolCyprus65.3
TurinItaly65.2
St.CatharinesCanada65.2
BestNetherlands65.1
Toledo, OHUnited States65.0
Salt Lake City, UTUnited States65.0
Oklahoma City, OKUnited States64.9
PadovaItaly64.9
LeicesterUnited Kingdom64.9
Freiburg im BreisgauGermany64.7
ErlangenGermany64.5
NicosiaCyprus64.5
Cincinnati, OHUnited States64.4
Tucson, AZUnited States64.3
DubaiUnited Arab Emirates64.3
Houston, TXUnited States63.9
BilbaoSpain63.8
BournemouthUnited Kingdom63.7
Mesa, AZUnited States63.7
EssenGermany63.6
Albuquerque, NMUnited States63.4
AberdeenUnited Kingdom63.4
Lexington, KYUnited States62.9
DohaQatar62.9
LeipzigGermany62.8
San Antonio, TXUnited States62.6
BariItaly62.6
DresdenGermany62.5
Tulsa, OKUnited States62.4
NaplesItaly62.4
Memphis, TNUnited States62.3
BremenGermany62.2
Akron, OHUnited States62.2
Kingston upon HullUnited Kingdom62.1
AachenGermany61.8
KaohsiungTaiwan61.4
RegensburgGermany61.4
BarcelonaSpain61.2
Little Rock, ARUnited States59.3
Port of SpainTrinidad And Tobago59.2
MadridSpain59.0
Palma de MallorcaSpain59.0
AthensGreece59.0
Wichita, KSUnited States58.9
PatrasGreece58.7
ThessalonikiGreece58.4
PalermoItaly58.0
Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates57.9
LarnacaCyprus57.4
CataniaItaly57.4
MaleMaldives57.3
LjubljanaSlovenia57.2
HeraklionGreece57.1
El Paso, TXUnited States55.9
HavanaCuba55.9
TallinnEstonia55.8
Zaragoza (Saragossa)Spain54.8
Panama CityPanama54.5
ManamaBahrain54.3
ShanghaiChina53.9
RiyadhSaudi Arabia53.9
TartuEstonia53.8
VigoSpain53.4
Seville (Sevilla)Spain53.3
ValenciaSpain53.0
PaphosCyprus52.9
MakatiPhilippines52.7
AjmanUnited Arab Emirates52.6
Jeddah (Jiddah)Saudi Arabia52.6
MalagaSpain52.5
AmmanJordan52.2
GranadaSpain52.0
MontevideoUruguay52.0
PragueCzech Republic51.8
MurciaSpain51.7
LisbonPortugal51.7
MariborSlovenia51.6
SplitCroatia51.6
KingstonJamaica51.6
RigaLatvia51.5
AlicanteSpain51.5
MuscatOman51.2
ShenzhenChina51.1
Santa Cruz de TenerifeSpain50.9
DakarSenegal50.9
CascaisPortugal50.9
Las Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain50.5
Addis AbabaEthiopia50.5
BangkokThailand50.4
RijekaCroatia50.1
Phnom PenhCambodia50.1
ZagrebCroatia49.9
BeijingChina49.5
BratislavaSlovakia49.4
PortoPortugal49.4
BrnoCzech Republic49.3
HangzhouChina49.2
ParamariboSuriname49.2
FunchalPortugal49.2
SharjahUnited Arab Emirates49.0
Ad DammamSaudi Arabia48.5
OlomoucCzech Republic48.2
KosiceSlovakia48.2
Kuwait CityKuwait48.0
San JoseCosta Rica47.7
CoimbraPortugal47.4
AbidjanIvory Coast47.1
BragaPortugal47.0
VilniusLithuania46.9
OstravaCzech Republic46.5
AveiroPortugal46.5
BudapestHungary46.1
SuzhouChina45.9
HarareZimbabwe45.7
LeiriaPortugal45.7
SantiagoChile45.6
San SalvadorEl Salvador45.3
CaracasVenezuela45.3
JohannesburgSouth Africa44.9
KaunasLithuania44.7
Santo DomingoDominican Republic44.7
Guatemala CityGuatemala44.6
PhuketThailand44.3
WarsawPoland43.9
ChengduChina43.8
OsijekCroatia43.6
Quezon CityPhilippines43.3
GdyniaPoland42.9
BaliIndonesia42.9
PretoriaSouth Africa42.8
GaboroneBotswana42.7
NanjingChina42.3
SofiaBulgaria42.2
Chiang MaiThailand42.2
MoscowRussia42.2
PattayaThailand42.1
GdanskPoland41.3
Krakow (Cracow)Poland41.3
WroclawPoland41.1
GuangzhouChina41.1
Cape TownSouth Africa41.0
JakartaIndonesia40.9
PecsHungary40.8
ManilaPhilippines40.8
PoznanPoland40.7
QuitoEcuador40.5
DurbanSouth Africa40.3
KatowicePoland40.3
Cluj-NapocaRomania40.2
BucharestRomania40.1
SzegedHungary40.1
BelgradeSerbia40.1
DebrecenHungary40.0
Petaling JayaMalaysia40.0
MarrakechMorocco39.9
PodgoricaMontenegro39.3
SzczecinPoland39.3
Kota KinabaluMalaysia39.3
Kuala LumpurMalaysia39.3
VarnaBulgaria39.1
SuvaFiji39.0
CebuPhilippines39.0
Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam39.0
CancunMexico38.9
AccraGhana38.7
TiranaAlbania38.7
GuayaquilEcuador38.6
MonterreyMexico38.5
PlovdivBulgaria38.4
SarajevoBosnia And Herzegovina38.4
LublinPoland38.0
Erbil (Irbil)Iraq38.0
Santa CruzBolivia38.0
Isfahan (Esfahan)Iran38.0
LodzPoland37.9
Saint PetersburgRussia37.8
Banja LukaBosnia And Herzegovina37.6
PenangMalaysia37.6
La PazBolivia37.5
Sao PauloBrazil37.5
Novi SadSerbia37.4
Mexico CityMexico37.4
LagosNigeria37.3
ConstantaRomania37.3
IasiRomania37.1
HanoiVietnam36.9
TangierMorocco36.9
BrasiliaBrazil36.8
BurgasBulgaria36.8
BaguioPhilippines36.7
Rio de JaneiroBrazil36.7
BrasovRomania36.6
CasablancaMorocco36.6
DamascusSyria36.4
SibiuRomania36.2
TimisoaraRomania36.2
KampalaUganda36.0
NairobiKenya35.9
MeridaMexico35.7
RabatMorocco35.7
Qingdao, ShandongChina35.5
QueretaroMexico35.4
BandungIndonesia35.4
OradeaRomania35.4
Buenos AiresArgentina35.3
DhakaBangladesh35.1
SkopjeNorth Macedonia34.9
UlaanbaatarMongolia34.9
CraiovaRomania34.9
AgadirMorocco34.8
BaghdadIraq34.8
SurabayaIndonesia34.7
LimaPeru34.6
AradRomania34.5
FlorianopolisBrazil34.4
CuencaEcuador34.2
Kiev (Kyiv)Ukraine34.1
GurgaonIndia34.1
GuadalajaraMexico34.1
KazanRussia34.0
YerevanArmenia34.0
Dar es SalaamTanzania34.0
Nizhny NovgorodRussia33.9
ColomboSri Lanka33.6
LusakaZambia33.6
NisSerbia33.4
YekaterinburgRussia33.2
MinskBelarus32.8
KrasnodarRussia32.7
MashhadIran32.5
Belo HorizonteBrazil32.5
CairoEgypt32.4
Porto AlegreBrazil32.3
KigaliRwanda32.3
NovosibirskRussia32.3
Rostov-na-donuRussia32.1
Odessa (Odesa)Ukraine31.9
ChisinauMoldova31.8
CuritibaBrazil31.8
BakuAzerbaijan31.6
TehranIran31.5
IstanbulTurkey31.1
TbilisiGeorgia31.0
YogyakartaIndonesia30.8
AsuncionParaguay30.6
KharkivUkraine30.5
Astana (Nur-Sultan)Kazakhstan30.3
ChandigarhIndia30.3
AlmatyKazakhstan30.2
TunisTunisia29.9
KathmanduNepal29.9
AlgiersAlgeria29.8
LvivUkraine29.7
TashkentUzbekistan29.4
MumbaiIndia29.3
DniproUkraine29.3
NoidaIndia29.2
MedellinColombia28.8
AlexandriaEgypt28.4
BarranquillaColombia28.4
Navi MumbaiIndia28.4
IzmirTurkey28.4
DelhiIndia28.2
BangaloreIndia28.2
BogotaColombia27.9
GoaIndia27.7
PuneIndia27.6
GhaziabadIndia27.6
ThaneIndia27.5
RanchiIndia27.3
AnkaraTurkey27.2
HyderabadIndia26.6
FaridabadIndia26.6
BishkekKyrgyzstan26.6
PristinaKosovo (Disputed Territory)26.2
ChennaiIndia26.1
AhmedabadIndia26.0
KolkataIndia26.0
CaliColombia25.8
GuwahatiIndia25.6
Lucknow (Lakhnau)India25.4
MaduraiIndia25.4
SuratIndia25.3
VadodaraIndia25.3
VijayawadaIndia25.0
LudhianaIndia24.9
Cyberjaya, SelangorMalaysia24.9
RaipurIndia24.8
DehradunIndia24.8
NashikIndia24.6
IndoreIndia24.5
RajkotIndia24.5
NagpurIndia24.4
ErnakulamIndia24.0
VisakhapatnamIndia24.0
JaipurIndia24.0
PatnaIndia24.0
MangaloreIndia23.7
BucaramangaColombia23.7
CoimbatoreIndia23.5
BhopalIndia23.4
BhubaneswarIndia23.3
MysoreIndia23.2
KochiIndia22.9
AgraIndia22.8
JammuIndia22.0
ThiruvananthapuramIndia21.8
Kozhikode (Calicut)India21.6
LahorePakistan21.5
IslamabadPakistan21.5
KabulAfghanistan21.4
ThrissurIndia21.3
KanpurIndia20.8
KarachiPakistan20.8
RawalpindiPakistan20.5
MultanPakistan18.7
PeshawarPakistan18.6

Bermuda’s capital city Hamilton ranks first on the list, with a cost of living that’s nearly 50% higher than New York’s.

Why is Hamilton so expensive? One reason is that nearly everything needs to be imported onto the tiny British archipelago—things like gas, groceries, and clothes—so it’s likely that prices in the territory are steep as a result.

Second on the list is Zurich, Switzerland, where expenses are roughly 30% higher than New York City. Food and beverages are particularly expensive in the region—according to the dataset, groceries are 58% more expensive than groceries in NYC, and restaurant prices are 55% higher.

However, it’s worth noting that while Zurich ranks high on the cost of living index, the city’s purchasing power is also strong, which we will dive into in the next section.

The Local Purchasing Power Index

Purchasing power is a metric that’s used to gauge the number of goods and services someone on an average salary can buy in that specific city.

Taking a look again at Zurich, consumers in the city have about 30% more purchasing power than New York City residents on average, despite having higher costs.

CityCountryLocal Purchasing Power Index
Houston, TXUnited States173.0
Dallas, TXUnited States170.7
Ann Arbor, MIUnited States160.0
Austin, TXUnited States158.2
Fremont, CAUnited States157.4
San Jose, CAUnited States157.4
Jersey City, NJUnited States155.9
Santa Clara, CAUnited States155.4
Columbus, OHUnited States151.3
Seattle, WAUnited States145.4
Charlotte, NCUnited States144.9
Jacksonville, FLUnited States144.3
Raleigh, NCUnited States144.1
ZugSwitzerland143.4
Salt Lake City, UTUnited States140.6
San Antonio, TXUnited States137.7
Colorado Springs, COUnited States137.6
Baltimore, MDUnited States136.1
Phoenix, AZUnited States135.9
Chicago, ILUnited States135.3
San Francisco, CAUnited States133.2
Madison, WIUnited States132.1
Tulsa, OKUnited States132.1
ErlangenGermany131.8
Little Rock, ARUnited States131.1
Richmond, VAUnited States130.9
Atlanta, GAUnited States130.7
Denver, COUnited States130.0
ZurichSwitzerland129.8
Albany, NYUnited States129.8
Cyberjaya, SelangorMalaysia128.5
Oklahoma City, OKUnited States128.0
San Diego, CAUnited States127.9
Kansas City, MOUnited States127.2
LausanneSwitzerland127.0
Los Angeles, CAUnited States126.1
Vancouver, WAUnited States126.1
Cleveland, OHUnited States125.3
Cincinnati, OHUnited States125.2
Las Vegas, NVUnited States124.8
Buffalo, NYUnited States124.4
Red DeerCanada123.9
Orlando, FLUnited States123.3
HamiltonNew Zealand123.2
Saint Louis, MOUnited States123.2
Albuquerque, NMUnited States122.4
Washington, DCUnited States121.8
Indianapolis, INUnited States121.5
Charleston, SCUnited States121.3
GenevaSwitzerland120.6
DerbyUnited Kingdom119.8
Wichita, KSUnited States119.2
NewcastleAustralia118.9
El Paso, TXUnited States118.8
Anchorage, AKUnited States118.6
AachenGermany116.5
Fresno, CAUnited States116.4
Boston, MAUnited States115.7
NurembergGermany115.7
Philadelphia, PAUnited States115.6
Pittsburgh, PAUnited States115.5
Minneapolis, MNUnited States114.7
CalgaryCanada114.2
Fort Worth, TXUnited States112.6
BernSwitzerland112.5
Spokane, WAUnited States112.4
LuganoSwitzerland112.0
Oakland, CAUnited States111.7
BaselSwitzerland111.5
Nashville, TNUnited States111.5
Detroit, MIUnited States110.1
North VancouverCanada110.1
PerthAustralia110.0
Long Beach, CAUnited States110.0
DusseldorfGermany110.0
Memphis, TNUnited States110.0
Louisville, KYUnited States109.7
EdmontonCanada109.5
DarwinAustralia109.4
Milwaukee, WIUnited States109.2
DresdenGermany109.1
StuttgartGermany109.0
Olympia, WAUnited States108.8
MarkhamCanada108.7
CoventryUnited Kingdom108.7
DarmstadtGermany108.5
Des Moines, IAUnited States108.4
Portland, ORUnited States108.1
UlmGermany107.4
FrankfurtGermany106.9
Saint Paul, MNUnited States106.6
CardiffUnited Kingdom106.2
Omaha, NEUnited States106.0
BerlinGermany105.9
Queens, NYUnited States105.7
DortmundGermany105.6
Plano, TXUnited States105.4
CanberraAustralia105.1
LundSweden104.9
Durham, NCUnited States104.8
SydneyAustralia104.5
AdelaideAustralia104.2
OxfordUnited Kingdom104.0
ReginaCanada104.0
BrisbaneAustralia103.8
BramptonCanada103.5
Mesa, AZUnited States103.4
RegensburgGermany103.3
KarlsruheGermany103.0
Akron, OHUnited States102.9
BangaloreIndia102.6
Lexington, KYUnited States102.4
MelbourneAustralia102.2
HeidelbergGermany102.2
AberdeenUnited Kingdom102.0
Everett, WAUnited States101.8
HobartAustralia101.6
WinnipegCanada101.6
Sacramento, CAUnited States101.4
Fort Lauderdale, FLUnited States101.3
TorontoCanada101.3
Gold CoastAustralia101.2
GothenburgSweden101.2
HamburgGermany101.1
OuluFinland101.1
DubaiUnited Arab Emirates101.1
AalborgDenmark100.9
ReadingUnited Kingdom100.9
LondonCanada100.4
Fort Collins, COUnited States100.3
LuxembourgLuxembourg100.2
Rochester, NYUnited States100.1
New York, NYUnited States100.0
MississaugaCanada99.7
SouthamptonUnited Kingdom98.4
Tampa, FLUnited States98.3
SurreyCanada98.1
Stoke-on-TrentUnited Kingdom97.9
Newcastle upon TyneUnited Kingdom97.7
BestNetherlands97.2
Reno, NVUnited States96.9
TurkuFinland96.8
LimerickIreland96.5
GlasgowUnited Kingdom96.4
BonnGermany95.7
HanoverGermany95.6
ArhusDenmark95.5
StockholmSweden95.4
MarseilleFrance95.3
MunichGermany95.2
MannheimGermany95.1
OdenseDenmark94.8
AmsterdamNetherlands94.5
Freiburg im BreisgauGermany94.5
OttawaCanada94.3
Asheville, NCUnited States94.2
Santa Barbara, CAUnited States93.9
ExeterUnited Kingdom93.9
EnschedeNetherlands93.8
Miami, FLUnited States93.7
Ad DammamSaudi Arabia93.6
New Orleans, LAUnited States92.9
CambridgeUnited Kingdom92.9
Greensboro, NCUnited States92.7
RiyadhSaudi Arabia92.7
LeicesterUnited Kingdom92.6
DelftNetherlands91.7
Chattanooga, TNUnited States91.7
NottinghamUnited Kingdom91.6
BelfastUnited Kingdom91.6
RotterdamNetherlands91.4
TampereFinland91.4
SingaporeSingapore91.3
ManchesterUnited Kingdom91.3
CopenhagenDenmark90.7
Toledo, OHUnited States90.5
EspooFinland90.3
AntwerpBelgium90.3
ChristchurchNew Zealand90.2
ToulouseFrance90.1
LiverpoolUnited Kingdom90.1
MontrealCanada89.9
DohaQatar89.9
TromsoNorway89.5
Honolulu, HIUnited States89.2
Salem, ORUnited States89.2
VictoriaCanada89.1
CologneGermany89.1
SheffieldUnited Kingdom89.1
LincolnUnited Kingdom89.0
LondonUnited Kingdom88.8
TokyoJapan88.6
The Hague (Den Haag)Netherlands88.5
LeedsUnited Kingdom88.5
SaskatoonCanada88.2
Eugene, ORUnited States88.2
TrondheimNorway88.0
EdinburghUnited Kingdom88.0
HalifaxCanada87.9
VancouverCanada87.7
PretoriaSouth Africa87.3
Quebec CityCanada87.2
BergenNorway87.0
BrusselsBelgium87.0
EindhovenNetherlands86.9
Kingston upon HullUnited Kingdom86.6
NijmegenNetherlands86.5
MaastrichtNetherlands86.5
MuscatOman86.5
HamiltonCanada86.4
StavangerNorway85.9
Berkeley, CAUnited States85.8
WellingtonNew Zealand85.5
SaarbruckenGermany85.4
OsloNorway85.2
Iowa City, IAUnited States85.0
PortsmouthUnited Kingdom85.0
Birmingham, ALUnited States84.9
MalmoSweden84.9
BristolUnited Kingdom84.8
CorkIreland84.5
TaurangaNew Zealand84.4
BredaNetherlands84.3
PlymouthUnited Kingdom84.0
UppsalaSweden83.9
Tucson, AZUnited States83.7
LeuvenBelgium83.6
HelsinkiFinland83.5
LyonFrance82.7
Boise, IDUnited States82.6
DundeeUnited Kingdom82.4
EssenGermany81.9
DublinIreland81.8
BirminghamUnited Kingdom81.8
OsakaJapan81.6
GrenobleFrance81.6
GranadaSpain81.6
Saint HelierJersey80.4
ParisFrance80.2
BeershebaIsrael80.1
AugsburgGermany79.9
AlicanteSpain79.9
LeipzigGermany79.8
NorwichUnited Kingdom79.7
JerusalemIsrael79.6
GuelphCanada79.6
ViennaAustria79.6
HamiltonBermuda79.4
AucklandNew Zealand79.2
Dayton, OHUnited States79.2
GrazAustria79.0
GuildfordUnited Kingdom78.8
Navi MumbaiIndia78.7
MurciaSpain78.5
LinzAustria78.4
Syracuse, NYUnited States78.4
GroningenNetherlands78.3
UtrechtNetherlands77.9
SalzburgAustria77.8
HaifaIsrael77.6
KelownaCanada77.5
GentBelgium77.4
LeidenNetherlands77.2
HaarlemNetherlands77.1
BremenGermany77.1
BournemouthUnited Kingdom76.5
Jeddah (Jiddah)Saudi Arabia76.1
Cape TownSouth Africa75.8
KingstonCanada75.4
Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates75.2
VigoSpain75.0
GurgaonIndia74.9
ReykjavikIceland74.8
BrightonUnited Kingdom74.8
MadridSpain74.8
SeoulSouth Korea74.5
Qingdao, ShandongChina74.0
Milton KeynesUnited Kingdom73.9
KitchenerCanada73.9
DurbanSouth Africa73.9
ThiruvananthapuramIndia73.7
YorkUnited Kingdom73.5
Petah TikvaIsrael72.9
NanjingChina72.9
JohannesburgSouth Africa72.2
PragueCzech Republic72.0
GalwayIreland71.9
St.CatharinesCanada71.2
Seville (Sevilla)Spain71.0
BarcelonaSpain70.8
Tel Aviv-YafoIsrael70.2
GuangzhouChina70.1
ValenciaSpain70.0
Zaragoza (Saragossa)Spain69.3
BresciaItaly69.1
ShenzhenChina69.0
Kuwait CityKuwait68.8
InnsbruckAustria68.0
MariborSlovenia68.0
MacaoMacao67.3
TurinItaly67.2
Krakow (Cracow)Poland67.1
San JuanPuerto Rico66.7
PadovaItaly66.6
ThaneIndia66.1
WarsawPoland66.0
PenangMalaysia65.9
MalagaSpain65.8
Hong KongHong Kong65.7
BilbaoSpain65.5
OstravaCzech Republic65.2
BrnoCzech Republic65.1
BariItaly65.0
HangzhouChina65.0
TallinnEstonia64.9
KaunasLithuania64.9
GdanskPoland64.4
NiceFrance64.2
KatowicePoland64.0
Kuala LumpurMalaysia64.0
Santa Cruz de TenerifeSpain63.8
BergamoItaly63.3
Palma de MallorcaSpain63.2
RaipurIndia63.2
VeronaItaly63.1
TriesteItaly63.0
St. John's, Newfoundland and LabradorCanada62.8
ManamaBahrain62.6
BratislavaSlovakia62.6
NoidaIndia62.6
VilniusLithuania62.1
TrevisoItaly62.0
OlomoucCzech Republic61.3
PaphosCyprus61.2
Petaling JayaMalaysia60.9
ParmaItaly60.7
TartuEstonia60.5
DelhiIndia60.4
NicosiaCyprus60.3
LjubljanaSlovenia60.2
LublinPoland60.2
WroclawPoland59.9
KochiIndia59.5
TaipeiTaiwan59.3
BolognaItaly58.9
PalermoItaly58.9
SuzhouChina58.8
JammuIndia58.4
PoznanPoland58.3
WindsorCanada58.0
LodzPoland57.8
YekaterinburgRussia57.8
CagliariItaly57.7
Nanaimo, BCCanada57.5
NagoyaJapan57.4
Las Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain56.7
SharjahUnited Arab Emirates56.7
OsijekCroatia56.4
NaplesItaly56.2
ChengduChina56.0
LimassolCyprus55.8
KaohsiungTaiwan55.5
LarnacaCyprus55.3
SofiaBulgaria55.3
ZagrebCroatia55.1
CataniaItaly54.6
GhaziabadIndia54.6
ThrissurIndia54.4
TimisoaraRomania54.3
BhubaneswarIndia54.2
MilanItaly54.0
PuneIndia53.7
FlorenceItaly53.4
BucharestRomania53.2
BeijingChina53.1
Cluj-NapocaRomania53.1
ShanghaiChina53.0
CoimbraPortugal53.0
CraiovaRomania52.9
RigaLatvia52.8
BudapestHungary52.7
PisaItaly52.1
GenoaItaly51.6
JaipurIndia51.5
GaboroneBotswana51.4
RomeItaly51.3
KosiceSlovakia51.2
HyderabadIndia51.2
SzczecinPoland51.1
FaridabadIndia51.1
QueretaroMexico51.0
AradRomania51.0
GdyniaPoland50.6
Kozhikode (Calicut)India50.0
DebrecenHungary49.9
LeiriaPortugal49.7
MoscowRussia49.6
SzegedHungary49.5
OradeaRomania49.5
AjmanUnited Arab Emirates48.3
LisbonPortugal48.3
SibiuRomania48.3
Kiev (Kyiv)Ukraine48.2
Lucknow (Lakhnau)India48.2
SliemaMalta48.0
MumbaiIndia48.0
MangaloreIndia47.9
PristinaKosovo (Disputed Territory)47.5
PecsHungary47.2
NassauBahamas46.7
FunchalPortugal46.5
ChandigarhIndia46.5
ErnakulamIndia46.5
MysoreIndia46.5
BragaPortugal46.3
VarnaBulgaria46.3
ChennaiIndia46.3
VadodaraIndia46.1
BhopalIndia45.8
PlovdivBulgaria45.6
ConstantaRomania45.4
PortoPortugal44.9
RajkotIndia44.8
SuvaFiji44.7
BrasovRomania44.7
KolkataIndia44.7
IasiRomania44.1
AveiroPortugal43.9
SarajevoBosnia And Herzegovina43.7
RijekaCroatia43.6
BrasiliaBrazil43.5
MonterreyMexico43.0
San JoseCosta Rica42.9
Novi SadSerbia42.7
VisakhapatnamIndia42.7
SplitCroatia42.5
NagpurIndia42.5
BurgasBulgaria42.4
SuratIndia42.0
CascaisPortugal41.2
Astana (Nur-Sultan)Kazakhstan41.0
Saint PetersburgRussia40.8
Port of SpainTrinidad And Tobago40.7
CoimbatoreIndia40.7
NisSerbia40.4
DehradunIndia40.4
AthensGreece40.0
IndoreIndia40.0
Erbil (Irbil)Iraq39.9
GuwahatiIndia39.6
Kota KinabaluMalaysia39.4
AnkaraTurkey39.1
AhmedabadIndia39.1
BaghdadIraq39.0
KanpurIndia38.8
RanchiIndia38.6
NovosibirskRussia38.4
Banja LukaBosnia And Herzegovina38.3
LvivUkraine38.3
CancunMexico38.2
ThessalonikiGreece37.9
LusakaZambia37.5
PatrasGreece37.4
VijayawadaIndia37.2
SkopjeNorth Macedonia37.0
Rostov-na-donuRussia36.9
PatnaIndia36.8
Mexico CityMexico36.7
KrasnodarRussia36.6
GoaIndia36.3
BelgradeSerbia36.1
HeraklionGreece36.0
PodgoricaMontenegro36.0
GuadalajaraMexico36.0
LudhianaIndia35.8
NashikIndia35.3
IzmirTurkey35.2
Nizhny NovgorodRussia35.0
RabatMorocco34.7
La PazBolivia34.6
ChisinauMoldova34.4
CasablancaMorocco34.1
KharkivUkraine34.0
AlmatyKazakhstan33.6
MeridaMexico33.5
KazanRussia33.5
TangierMorocco33.2
Santa CruzBolivia32.9
MedellinColombia32.8
MaduraiIndia32.8
Odessa (Odesa)Ukraine32.7
DniproUkraine32.7
Panama CityPanama32.3
CuritibaBrazil32.3
SantiagoChile32.1
GuayaquilEcuador31.4
AgadirMorocco31.4
TiranaAlbania31.2
MinskBelarus31.2
Porto AlegreBrazil31.2
CaliColombia31.1
Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam30.9
MontevideoUruguay30.8
CuencaEcuador30.8
HanoiVietnam30.7
BucaramangaColombia30.4
MarrakechMorocco30.0
Chiang MaiThailand29.9
BangkokThailand29.8
QuitoEcuador29.7
YerevanArmenia29.7
AmmanJordan29.5
TbilisiGeorgia29.5
IslamabadPakistan29.5
FlorianopolisBrazil29.3
Sao PauloBrazil29.2
NairobiKenya29.2
KarachiPakistan29.2
LimaPeru28.9
IstanbulTurkey28.7
MaleMaldives28.5
BakuAzerbaijan28.0
AgraIndia27.9
AsuncionParaguay27.4
PhuketThailand27.3
BarranquillaColombia27.0
Buenos AiresArgentina26.9
KigaliRwanda26.4
KingstonJamaica26.1
BogotaColombia26.1
PeshawarPakistan26.0
JakartaIndonesia25.3
MultanPakistan25.1
UlaanbaatarMongolia25.0
Guatemala CityGuatemala24.4
CairoEgypt24.4
LahorePakistan24.4
TunisTunisia24.2
DhakaBangladesh23.8
SurabayaIndonesia23.6
PattayaThailand23.3
KathmanduNepal23.2
DakarSenegal23.1
BishkekKyrgyzstan23.1
RawalpindiPakistan22.9
Isfahan (Esfahan)Iran22.8
KabulAfghanistan22.8
MashhadIran22.7
TashkentUzbekistan22.6
Santo DomingoDominican Republic22.2
ManilaPhilippines22.2
San SalvadorEl Salvador21.8
BandungIndonesia21.8
AlgiersAlgeria21.8
AccraGhana21.1
Belo HorizonteBrazil21.0
MakatiPhilippines20.6
AlexandriaEgypt20.3
Quezon CityPhilippines19.7
Rio de JaneiroBrazil18.9
BaguioPhilippines18.7
ColomboSri Lanka18.6
HarareZimbabwe17.6
CebuPhilippines17.6
ParamariboSuriname16.4
CaracasVenezuela15.9
BeirutLebanon15.4
Phnom PenhCambodia14.8
TehranIran14.6
BaliIndonesia14.1
Dar es SalaamTanzania13.5
YogyakartaIndonesia12.2
Addis AbabaEthiopia9.8
KampalaUganda9.8
LagosNigeria8.3
AbidjanIvory Coast6.3
DamascusSyria5.0
HavanaCuba1.6

In contrast, the average consumer in Hamilton, Bermuda has a relatively low purchasing power. Based on the average net salary in the city, consumers can afford about 30% less than people in New York City.

Inflation Continues to Drive Prices Up

Amidst rising inflation and increased prices for consumer goods, cost of living has become top of mind for many people around the world.

Since late 2021, the world has been experiencing a cost of living crisis, largely because of pent-up demand following the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with supply chain issues and the Russia-Ukraine conflict.

But according to UBS Chief Economist Paul Donovan, we’ve likely seen the worst of it, and inflation is likely to decrease across the globe in the second half of the year.

green check mark icon

This article was published as a part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from some of our favorite Creators around the world.

Subscribe to Visual Capitalist
Click for Comments

Misc

All the Contents of the Universe, in One Graphic

We explore the ultimate frontier: the composition of the entire known universe, some of which are still being investigated today.

Published

on

The Composition of the Universe

All the Contents of the Universe, in One Graphic

Scientists agree that the universe consists of three distinct parts: everyday visible (or measurable) matter, and two theoretical components called dark matter and dark energy.

These last two are theoretical because they have yet to be directly measured—but even without a full understanding of these mysterious pieces to the puzzle, scientists can infer that the universe’s composition can be broken down as follows:

ComponentValue    
Dark energy68%
Dark matter27%
Free hydrogen and helium4%
Stars0.5%
Neutrinos0.3%
Heavy elements0.03%

Let’s look at each component in more detail.

Dark Energy

Dark energy is the theoretical substance that counteracts gravity and causes the rapid expansion of the universe. It is the largest part of the universe’s composition, permeating every corner of the cosmos and dictating how it behaves and how it will eventually end.

Dark Matter

Dark matter, on the other hand, has a restrictive force that works closely alongside gravity. It is a sort of “cosmic cement” responsible for holding the universe together. Despite avoiding direct measurement and remaining a mystery, scientists believe it makes up the second largest component of the universe.

Free Hydrogen and Helium

Free hydrogen and helium are elements that are free-floating in space. Despite being the lightest and most abundant elements in the universe, they make up roughly 4% of its total composition.

Stars, Neutrinos, and Heavy Elements

All other hydrogen and helium particles that are not free-floating in space exist in stars.

Stars are one of the most populous things we can see when we look up at the night sky, but they make up less than one percent—roughly 0.5%—of the cosmos.

Neutrinos are subatomic particles that are similar to electrons, but they are nearly weightless and carry no electrical charge. Although they erupt out of every nuclear reaction, they account for roughly 0.3% of the universe.

Heavy elements are all other elements aside from hydrogen and helium.

Elements form in a process called nucleosynthesis, which takes places within stars throughout their lifetimes and during their explosive deaths. Almost everything we see in our material universe is made up of these heavy elements, yet they make up the smallest portion of the universe: a measly 0.03%.

How Do We Measure the Universe?

In 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched a space observatory called Planck to study the properties of the universe as a whole.

Its main task was to measure the afterglow of the explosive Big Bang that originated the universe 13.8 billion years ago. This afterglow is a special type of radiation called cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR).

Temperature can tell scientists much about what exists in outer space. When investigating the “microwave sky”, researchers look for fluctuations (called anisotropy) in the temperature of CMBR. Instruments like Planck help reveal the extent of irregularities in CMBR’s temperature, and inform us of different components that make up the universe.

You can see below how the clarity of CMBR changes over time with multiple space missions and more sophisticated instrumentation.
CMBR Instruments

What Else is Out There?

Scientists are still working to understand the properties that make up dark energy and dark matter.

NASA is currently planning a 2027 launch of the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope, an infrared telescope that will hopefully help us in measuring the effects of dark energy and dark matter for the first time.

As for what’s beyond the universe? Scientists aren’t sure.

There are hypotheses that there may be a larger “super universe” that contains us, or we may be a part of one “island” universe set apart from other island multiverses. Unfortunately we aren’t able to measure anything that far yet. Unravelling the mysteries of the deep cosmos, at least for now, remains a local endeavor.

Continue Reading

Misc

Sharpen Your Thinking with These 10 Powerful Cognitive Razors

Here are 10 razors, or rules of thumb, that help simplify decision-making, inspired by a list curated by the investor and thought leader Sahil Bloom.

Published

on

Improve Your Decision-Making with These 10 Cognitive Razors

The average adult makes about 35,000 conscious decisions each day.

Given this sheer volume of choice, how do we ensure we’re making the right decisions, day in and day out, without becoming exhausted?

Using insights from investor and thought leader Sahil Bloom, this graphic shares 10 cognitive razors, or rules of thumb, that can help you simplify your decision-making.

We’ve organized Bloom’s favorite cognitive razors into three overarching categories, which we dive into in further detail below.

Location, Location, Location

The first theme is location, and the importance of being at the right place at the right time.

The Luck Razor falls into this category because it highlights the importance of putting yourself out there. According to the Luck Razor, when choosing between two paths, pick the one with the largest “luck surface area,” or the path that offers you the most opportunity to get lucky.

This is because when you’re networking, meeting people, and building new relationships, you’re much more likely to stumble upon an opportunity than if you were sitting on your couch, not taking action.

The Rooms Razor follows a similar theme because it emphasizes the importance of your surroundings. It stresses that, if you have a choice between two rooms to walk into, choose the one where you’re most likely to be the dumbest person in the room.

While it’s a bit of an uncomfortable situation, it provides a greater opportunity for growth, as long as you check your ego at the door and listen to what others have to say.

Lastly, the Arena Razor reminds us that when we want something, we need to take the necessary steps to make it happen.

For instance, if you want to become a social media influencer, you need to start creating content and posting it online. It’s not easy to put yourself out there and take action, but if you want to play the game, you need to be in the arena.

The Power of Positive Thinking

The next theme is the power of mindset and positive thinking. This relates to how you view your life, the people you choose to surround yourself with, and how you interpret the actions and opinions of others.

According to the Gratitude Razor, when in doubt, don’t hesitate to show your gratitude to people who have supported you, or given you advice or opportunities.

Research studies have shown that expressing gratitude and giving thanks can be correlated with greater happiness, improved health, and stronger more meaningful relationships. So make sure to say thank you regularly, and tell your loved ones how much you appreciate their support.

It’s not just your mindset that’s important, though. The Optimist Razor recommends surrounding yourself with optimists, rather than pessimists. Pessimists may point out everything that could go wrong in a scenario, which might discourage you to break out of your comfort zone.

Optimism, on the other hand, will emphasize everything that could go right—and may even help you problem solve if you encounter problems along the way.

Keep Decision-Making Simple, Silly

The last one is quite simple, really: don’t overcomplicate things.

Occam’s Razor, which is named after the 14th-century scholar Franciscan friar William of Ockham, is generally interpreted as the following: when faced with a decision between two competing theories that generate the same outcome, the simplest theory is often the best one.

As Bloom says in this blog post, “simple assumptions [over] complex assumptions. If you have to believe a complex, intertwined series of assumptions in order to reach one specific conclusion, always ask whether there is a simple alternative assumption that fits.”

The ability to make things simple is also a good indicator of how deeply you understand something. According to the Feynman Razor, if you can’t explain a concept simply, then you don’t really understand it. So, if someone uses a ton of jargon or complexity to explain something, they could be masking a lack of deeper knowledge on the topic.

Editor’s note: For more information on cognitive razors and simplifying your decision-making, check out Sahil Bloom’s newsletter, or listen to his podcast episode where he talks about the most powerful razors he’s discovered so far in life.

Continue Reading

Subscribe

Popular